Technological researches

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Developing the operational quality assessment system of cleaning services and evaluating the measurement and assessment system of the technical quality of cleaning.
Vaitti Seija, Tampere University of Applied Sciences
Language: finnish
2014 Finland

This study discusses the overall quality of cleaning services, which consists of the technical quality of cleaning and the operational quality of the cleaning service. This study examines the views of various organizations in the cleaning industry on the functional quality indicators, and estimates the adaptability of the Finnish Standards Association’s standard 5994 for the measurement and evaluation system of technical quality of cleaning (INSTA 800:2010) in different organizations in the cleaning industry. The aim was to develop a feasible service product for the evaluation and measurement of the overall quality of cleaning services for the use of Tampere Cleaning Equipment Ltd.

The Quality of Cleaning
Seppä Hanna, Tampere University of Applied Sciences
Language: finnish
2014 Finland

Much attention has been paid quality control in the cleaning branch in recent years. For quality control purposes, a variety of systems has also been developed to facilitate a fair evaluation. Quality consists of functional quality and technical quality. The complex of these is the overall quality of the cleaning services. The thesis work familiarizes a few well-known quality programmers, of which there is experience in the cleaning services. The thesis work introduced to INSTA 800 system, the Lean system of self-monitoring, as well as conducting in-house control in the cleaning branch. The thesis deals with the implementation of quality, quality assurance and the content of the quality plan.

Surface dust in classrooms before and after cleaning
Kyengo Anthony, Jyväskylä University of Applied Sciences
Language: finnish
2013 Finland

The aim of the Bachelor`s Thesis was to find out how much dust there was on surfaces in classrooms before cleaning and what quality level it was. The thesis also examined the amount of surface dust after cleaning. Dust accumulations were collected by the Dustdetector Method. The method is a quality assurance method of the standard INSTA 800.

PCHS, Hygien Probiotic Cleaning System, is an innovative cleaning system capable of ensuring a stable hygiene environments, developed and perfected by Copma and based on scientific research carried out by the CIAS Centre for the Study Pollution environments High Infertility at the University of Ferrara
Copma and CIAS (Centre for the Study Pollution environments High Infertility) at the University of Ferrara
Language: Italian
2011 Italy

It is a  system that combines the action of probiotic bacteria with the effectiveness of the materials used and specifically studied.  Summary Report: Testing of bio-stabilization techniques for the cleaning and sanitizing of Inpatient Hospital - 2011 CIAS – University of Ferrara, Research Centre for pollution control in high sterile rooms, Copma Scarl - Ferrara.
Thanks to the PCHS system, the level of bacterial pathogens (the bearers of the risk of infection), after the cleaning operation, is kept very low in time (up to 95% less) making the environment hygienically stable and safer. Probiotic healthcare products, with the support of the materials of the system PCHS, acting deep inside the micropores of the surfaces, reduce the resistance of pathogens and create a safe and beneficial microflora. The probiotic bacteria used are classified by the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) "Class 1-pathogenic microorganisms not risk"; being genetically stable, thanks to their ability spore act even after many hours from surfaces hygienically making them safer. Not induce the formation of resistant pathogenic bacteria, are biodegradable and not harmful to the environment.

Cleaning of a Professional Kitchen- The Suitability of Nanotechnolgical Cleaning Agent in Polishing Stainless Steel Surfaces at a Fast Food Restaurant
Reikko Anni, Tampere University of Applied Sciences
Language: finnish
2011 Finland

The purpose of this bachelor thesis was to test the suitability of nanotechnological cleaning agent in polishing stainless steel surfaces at a restaurant. The thesis was made as an assignment by the order of the cleaning agent manufacturer Ecolab, and it was made in co-operation with the fast food restaurant Hesburger Nokia. The actual testing of the nanotechnological cleaning agent took place at Hesburger Nokia. The theoretical section of this bachelor thesis consists of discussing the special features of cleaning in a professional kitchen and of a theory about nanotechnology.

Developing Hotel Room Cleaning
Turkki Satu, Mikkeli University of Applied Sciences
Language: finnish
2011 Finland

The aim of this research is to determine the present state of a certain Finnish hotel room cleaning and to develop it, on the basis of research material gained from this study. The focus was on room cleaning after guests had checked out. The research material, needed for development was obtained by videoing the housekeeping manager at work. Areas to be developed were ergonomics, hygiene, work safety and cleaning methods in the hotel room cleaning and remaking the bed. The primary area for development were the use of a cleaning trolley, changing to fresh cleaning cloths after cleaning a room as well as the use of cleaning agents.

Volume 34, Issue 6,  pages 691–697, November 2010
Erja Toiviainen-Laine, Hanna-Riitta Kymäläinen and Risto Kuisma. Helsinki University.
Language: english
2010 Finland and International Journal of Consumer Studies

The objective of this laboratory study was to obtain general background information concerning professional cleaning in private domestic homes. The specific aim was to examine the effect of storage and washing of dirty cloths on their hygienic status. The effect of storage on the number of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in cleaning cloths was examined using current or potential materials for professional cleaning in private homes. The bacterial content increased in microfibre cloths in some cases during a normal working day (8 h storage), and more clearly after 16 h or 48 h of storage. Disposable fibre cloths did not promote the growth of microbes as well as microfibre cloths. The effect of detergents on the hygienic status of cleaning cloths was unclear: some cleaning agents appeared to enhance the growth of bacteria, while others did not. In many cases, organic substances, i.e. protein added to the cloths, enhanced the growth of microbes. Washing of microfibre cloths at 60°C reduced the numbers of bacteria on the cloths but did not remove them entirely. Storage of dirty cloths before washing will probably cause difficulties in the proper washing of the cloths, and thus negatively affect their capacity for hygienic results in cleaning surfaces, as well as presenting a risk to the safety of the worker. Cleaning cloths should be washed as soon as possible after use: washing after each working day, at the latest, is recommended. Furthermore, cleaning cloths should be selected for professional use to allow washing at hot temperatures. The findings of this study could be used for training in professional home cleaning. They also provide valuable information for other branches of cleaning, including consumer use in households.

Cleaning of Humid Facilities in Hotel
Savelainen Päivi, Tampere University of Applied Sciences
Language: finnish
2010 Finland

The purpose of this study was to develop the cleaning of humid facilities in hotel. These humid facilities were situated in the city of Tampere in the hotel bathrooms within the rooms and the hotels common sauna facilities and there were the practical testings also made. The bathrooms in the hotel were old and the problem is how to clean them as well as possible and how to avoid for example the forming of red alga. In the sauna facilities the aim was to keep the good level of cleaning with daily maintenance cleaning and weekly basic cleaning. In the hotel the utilization rate of sauna facilities especially in the mens side is high and that is why these facilities get dirty easily. A new protective agent was tested in the bathrooms. First, four bathrooms were basic cleaned and after that the protective agent was spread to two of them.

Guiding Sodexo Oy Cleaning Service Personnel in Maintaining Working abilitys and Ergonomics
Uhlgren, Jenni. Tampere university of Applied Sciencies.
Language: finnish
2010 Finland

This subject was chosen because of the interest of ergonomics and the maintaining of working ability in cleaning industry. This study had a purpose to find less straining in  t physically and to improve cleaner's  ability to work.

Hygiene of swimming hall and survey of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bakterium in Tampere
Huuhka Anna-Lotta and Vähämäki Anu, Tampere University of Applied Sciences
Language: finnish
2009 Finland

In accordance with law, water in simming pools has to be so clean that it doesn't cause any health hazards. Bacterium called Pseudomonas aeruginosa poses the biggest threat. This particular bacterium has been a huge problem in Tampere's swimming centre. The aim of this final thesis was to define how and from where the bacterium finds its way to swimming pool. Based on results received a conclusion was done: there have been some failures in cleaning and that is why the amount of micro-organisms was so huge.

Developing cleaning methods in professional kitchen
Korhonen Leila and Hanski Kirsi, Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences
Language: finnish
2009 Finland

In professional kitchens, cleaning is a necessity which requires a substantial amount of resources. The traditional cleaning method is a strain to employees and a burden to the environment. This thesis examines the abilities of professional kitchen employees to develop their cleaning methods, emphasizing both ergonomic and ecological aspects. The thesis focuses in suitability of less water consuming cleaning methods in a professional kitchen environment. Suitability will be assessed from various perspectives.

Well-being and Ecological Cleaning in Hotel

Taskinen Tiina, PIRAMK University of Applied Sciences
Language: finnish
2009 Finland

Cleaning and housekeeping in Holiday Club Tampereen Kylpylä (Tampere Spa) moved
in on ecological cleaning in early spring 2009. The writer of this thesis was asked to
write about ecological cleaning in the hotel. Eventually the topic became workers´ wellbeing
and ecological cleaning in the hotel. The thesis deals with housekeepers´ general
well-being at work and the impact of ecological cleaning. The proper research was carried out with the help of a written questionnaire to the
housekeepers. Afterwards the topics in the questionnaire were discussed. Very
few sources of information on this subject could be found during the writing of this
thesis, because this was first research into this topic.

Quality control in cleaning services
Kyengo Anthony, Jyväskylä University of Applied Sciences
Language: english
2007 Finland

Quality control is a phenomenon that has come to play a significant role in the cleaning industry today. Cleaning companies and customers alike are now more than ever, well informed of how important it is to maintain a healthy working environment and the structural well being of the facility. The need for a clean environment both indoors and outdoors is constantly and continuously being emphasized by the need to improve cleaning methods and services. The aim of this research was to find out how cleaning companies can effectively implement quality control procedures in the cleaning service.

Modifications of surface materials and their effects on cleanability as studied by radiochemical methods

Määttä Jenni, University of Helsinki
Language: english
2007 Finland

Modifications of surface materials and their effects on cleanability have important impacts in many fields of activity. In this study the primary aim was to develop radiochemical methods suitable for evaluating cleanability in material research for different environments. Another aim was to investigate the effects of surface modifications on cleanabilitity and surface properties of plastics, ceramics, concrete materials and also their coatings in conditions simulating their typical environments. Several new 51Cr and 14C labelled soils were developed for testing situations.

Physical characterization of plastic surfaces in wearing and cleanability research
Kuisma Risto, University of Helsinki
Language: english
2006 Finland

Plastic surfaces are a group of materials used for many purposes. The present study was focused on methods for investigation of surface topography, wearing and cleanability of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) model surfaces and industrial plastic surfaces.

Determination of cleanability of plastic surfaces

Pesonen-Leinonen Eija, University of Helsinki
Language: english
2005 Finland

The cleanability of plastic materials can be studied from the molecular scale to practical scale. The present study concentrated on poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) model materials and commercial plastic materials by focusing on the following areas of cleanability: First, to evaluate the feasibility of a colorimetric method. Second, to establish a radiotracer technique to investigate soil accumulation and to evaluate the effect of the composition of PVC model materials on accumulation. Third, to examine the feasibility of a contact angle measurement technique to determine the surface properties of commercial plastic materials and then to evaluate these surface properties related to cleanability. Fourth, to evaluate the feasibility of foil sampling and optical methods to measure dust accumulation on various furniture and floor surfaces in office buildings.

Cleaners’ Physical Condition Is Not up to the Demands of Their Job
Leila Hopsu, Marjut Holopainen, Riikka Ranta. Työterveyslaitos. Helsinki
Language: finnish
2005 Finland

The health, work ability, working conditions and attitudes toward retirement of a group of some 60 female cleaners were studied by questionnaire-based surveys and laboratory tests in 1991, 2002 and 2003

The effect of textile floor and hard floor (linoleum) on indoor air quality in an office building

Dep. Of Building and Environment, National Institute of Technology (Norwey), Norwegian Building Research Institute    
Language: english            

Aim: Carpets have been claimed to have negative influence on indoor air quality due to sink-effects and insufficient cleaning and maintenance, so the Institutes mentioned above compared the effect of textile floor and hard floor (linoleum) on indoor air quality in an office building. Results: There were no significant differences between dust deposition rate in rooms having textile floor coverings and linoleum covering, however dust deposition rates were lower in rooms with hard floor. The proportions of viable micro-organisms in  dust were on average lower in samples from hard floors than in samples from textile floors. It was no significant difference in results for airborne particles between rooms with carpets and rooms with hard floors. The dust sampled from textile floor coverings and hard floors had the same composition and consisted of fibres, sand, human skin particles etc. Dust sampled from textile floor coverings had a higher fraction of sand and fibre. Textile floors can be dust depot one year after instalation despite trough cleaning and can give a slight contribution of pollutants to the indoor environment which can aggravate the indoor air quality. Textile floors are difficult to keep clean and the cleaning and maintenance costs are higher.

To find a fast and relative safe method for textile floorings
Cleaning Technology Institute
Language: english

Textile flooring are very  frequent. To clean them it’s a challange, cause
of the high water entry, and the long drying times. In this research, used carbon dioxid clathrates in a well limited circumstances :the pressures between 30to 50 bar, temperatures between 0-5 C.
The resaercher find that the carbon dioxid clathrates are very effective – without damages, with low cost, and short time- represents a good alternative.

Better facility services improve productivity of employees in offices

ATiR b.v.

Aim: to find an answer the question of whether the provision of facilities services influences the productivity of employees in an office environment. Results: Theoretical framework - there are 3 types of factors that influence productivity: work characteristics; environmental characteristics; indyvidual characteristics. The environmental charcteristics relate to working conditions and in this ivestigation focus entirely on the provision of facilities services. Within the framewark of this investigation two facilities services were chosen to quantify the environmental characteristic: cleaning and catering. Research methods: questionnaire - employees were asked what influence they themselves perceive. The results demonstrated that were the environment was given a higher assessment, the influence of cleaning and catering attributed a positive influence on the speed, quantity and quality of work. Facilities services  provide added value for the primary process of an organisation.

Cleaning methods, their effectiveness and airborne dust generation        
National Institute of Occupational Health (Denmark), ISS Servi-system (Norway)                
Language: english

Aim: to assess the effectiveness of dry and wet methods for cleaning furniture and hard floors. Results: The effectiveness of damp cloth was good on ferniture, but poor on floors. On hard floors oil mop methods were most effective. On ferniture wet cloth was best at high dust levels but at low levels the relative differences between dry and wet methods were low. Wet methods may damage surfaces, if wrong chemicals or dosage is used or if too much water is applied. Wet methods also leave behind a residue of detergents that's why use of the dry methods should be encouraged. In general there is no simple relation between surface and airborne dust concentration, however the less dust on a surface, the less in the potential for redispersing dust.

Cleaning with micro-fibre cloths as an alternative for cleaning with chemicals                
Norwegian Building Research Institute, National Institute of Technology (Norway), National Institute of Occupational Health (Denmark)                
Aim: The scope of this study was to examine the fibre characteristics, action on surface in wet and dry condition, cleaning effect and wear resistance of cloths made of ultra-micro-fibre and compare them with micro-fibre-cloths and other methods for cleaning of ferniture. Results: Ultra-micro-fibre cloths were waer resistant but lost more fibres than micro-fibre and ordinary cloths. Cloths made form ultra-micro-fibre acts less corrosively on semi-hard surfaces (plexiglas) than other cloths when used in damp condition. Micro- and ultra-micro-fibres corrodes semi-hard surfaces when used dry. All cloths showed very high friction against semi-hard surfaces in damp condition. Both ultra-micro- and micro-fibre cloths have a very good cleaning effect both dry and damp and they showed better cleaning effects than other more conventional methods for cleaning furniture and other interior surfaces so the use of cleaning chemicals, a potential contaminant to the indoor air, can be avoided.